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The possible alignment of Pumas to face Cruz Azul. Sports Why Fassi attaches great importance to the sale of Facundo Medina.
Italy deployed medical team on board Ocean Viking policy admin - July 4, Plane shot down: Iran had not closed its airspace for military reasons admin - July 4, Infinite Load Articles.
Workshops has just captured the sale of the young defender Facundo Medina to the Lens of France, an operation that will bring the club After a long wait, Pumas will return to the Olympic University Stadium to face his first match of the Tournament for Mexico, against Cruz Or about the fear for mass- immigration out of Africa and the Middle East?
Is there anything in this 21st century that Europeans are not afraid of? Does this new 21st century existential ' angst' resemble the old pessimistic sorrows of an Oswald Spengler or an Arnold Toynbee, both of whom successfully summarized 'angst' in their The Decline of the West and Civilization on Trial and the World and the West ?
How about the paranoid 'angst' of a Willhelm Marr in his Finis Germaniae, a manifesto about the decline of the Germanic race s to which also the Anglo-Saxons belong Marr, ; Heihnson, ; Ftilberth, Is that paper reflecting mere diplomatic 'foolishness', the insecurity of its authors, or does is just smell like honest, genuine 'fear'?
But the above example gives us an idea about the 'psychology of failure' in this case, two world wars and the wish to stand up for something meaningful again, in this case for ' Western values' while at the same time discredit or even deny such a thing as 'Asian values'.
That this, consequentially, also means to render all non- Western societies as inferior or imma- ture, does not and will never come naturally to Germany's cultural mind, if you recall European history - and especially 18 th , 19 th and 20 th centuries' German orientalism Pattberg, Anything close to a "revolution of the spirit", a turn of attitude toward China in the case of Germany just like any other European society for that matter , must come first and foremost from within the heart.
In this case, from the blending of Eastern spirit and Western spirit that slowly sinks into the minds and hearts of the European people; in reality it's all happening by physical migration of more and more Easterners into the Euro- pean heartland.
Okakura Kakuzo, 1 Monier Williams, 1 It is all-tolerant, all-compliant, all-comprehensive, all- absorbing. Radhakrishnan, European culture has the ability to master energy and mechanics, but has only elementary knowledge regarding the human body and the concert of mind and brain.
Claude Levi Strauss, The modern idea of 'pan-Asianism' and the slogan "Asia is one" were first discussed in Okakura Kakuzo's groundbreaking book The Ideals of the East , but became really popular again in the 90' s during the academic discourse on 'Asian val- ues': 'Asian values' is a vague concept of certain religious and spiritual tendencies, traditions and virtues like filial piety, love for learning, collectivism, and inner-world dependency that are shared by most Asian some say only Confucian cultures, but not - or not equally - stressed in most Western societies Lee, But definition Asian values form a self-affirming psycho- logical counterpoise, and thus source of conflict to those Western values of disregard for the elderly, liberalism, individu- alism, and outer-world dependency.
Another major blow to Western over-confidence was the ge- netic challenge. Rushton and A. Jenson , A.
Herrnstein and C. Murray , J. Flynn , , and I. This is ready available science; no one is in the dark any longer. Indeed, the cognitive pre- eminence of East- Asians in several intellectual and artistic disci- plines is as fascinating and terrifying to look at as, for instance, watching the awesome dominance of Afro-American basketball players in the NBA Flynn, ; Ledderose, Britain, in the same year, had hardly 2.
The cultural and economic penalty for not recognizing East- Asian talent is immense, and unsurprisingly in this century we have witnessed in particular the anglophone world recruiting Chinese students and immigrants in unprecedented numbers.
With this trend came 'po- litical correctness' and the need to talk about culture and cultural values e. Fukuyama, Huntington etc.
Herrnstein, Flynn etc. No matter which ethnic group you come from, we're all pretty much the same. Without having to care about race, by carefully only talking about culture, Western ranks are slowly but steadily filled with the over-surplus of human capital produced by East- ern societies - as diverse as possible, please.
It serves both hemispheres, thus benefits the equilibrium: The analytical-based, deductive West increases its diversity, tendency for devolution and multiculturalism and is thus profiting from Eastern 'over- production' of human capital that is required to keep Western culture breathing, while the integration-based East increases its ethnic dominance and geopolitical reach politicians call it soft- power , thereby forcing ever greater levels of peace, tolerance and harmoniousness onto the West.
The European nation states send a lot of people out, but do not have huge populations, and let everyone in.
The United States have a huge population, but send not enough out, and let everyone in. Japan has a big population, lets no one in, but sends few out.
China, India and the Islamic world come very close to that ideal. But the first encounter of scale and cul- tural significance between East and West were the many Jesuit missions during the late Ming Dynasty in Indeed, Matteo Ricci , Francis Xavier , and Jean Adam Schall von Bell , like most other Jesuit mis- sionaries in Asia, came, see, and wrote extensively about the Chinese civilization that - despite its numerous follies and short- comings - in many ways was not only superior in size and number, but its people also "more polite, delicate and gentle in nature", and thus outclassed the West not only "in scope of its economies", and in terms of its "sympathetic, true human intelli- 61 THE EAST-WEST DICHOTOMY gence" Gu, 1 , but also in its awareness of its sophisticated moral code and perceived antiquity Hart, : It is well-known fact that the liking - you may call it the taste for the Chinese - grows upon the foreigner the longer he lives in this country.
Gu Hongming, Despite the achievements of the Jesuits in the 1 7th century in China, one should not merely attribute their successes to the cu- riosity of the Chinese intellectuals, or the expertise and advanced scientific training of the Catholic Church, but perhaps more so to the cosmopolitan mind of China's emperors.
It was not uncom- mon for 'Shangdi' the Emperor to employ foreigners Li, Or can anybody imagine the impossible scenario of some Chinese Tao- ist monks walking into Vatican City of the Dark Ages and negotiating alternative world- views with the clerics?
Not even the Church's own people, not even the Jesuits could do that, if one recalls Galileo Galilei who happened to spend the latter part of his life under the inquisitional house arrest.
Thus, it was very likely the case that my words : the Jesuits had an extraordinary good time in Asia while living under 'Tianxia', built some churches but also translated Chinese litera- ture, and stood on good terms with the Confucian mode of moral conduct and learning, in exchange for an equally curious and tolerant Chinese audience Li, , Jami, It was outrageous and plainly inconceivable to the Catholic Church, "how a system of filial piety and state morality called Confucian could take the place of a proper religion, could make men, even the mass of Asia, do without religion" Gu, Of course, the fascination with Chinese culture would never cease in Western academic circles.
It could only increase. The Germans admired Asia immensely. Goethe rejoiced: "They have another peculiarity; in China men and nature are in- separable.
Satirically, it may be for your amusement, Leibniz suggested that Chinese missionaries should be invited to instruct the European people Cook and Rosemont, In , after spending a year lecturing at Peking University, the British philosopher and mathematician Russell, despite his ludi- crous criticism on the "cowardice, callousness, and voraciousness in the average Chinaman", still found mostly words of admiration for China's cultural industrialism and over- eager hospitality Chinese intellectuals literally bend over backwards to please foreigners, and treated Russell courteously , and, naturally, the Imperial examination system c.
This gargantuan system of totali- tarian proportion yet universal meritocracy in theory, in praxis there is abuse in any system had, over the course of years, co-shaped Confucian China and Imperial China, and, although formally abandoned in , in Russell's time still dominated people's minds and attitudes towards learning and career.
The Imperial system, unlike the European one of those days, was theoretically blind to social class or creed of its candidates, and was solely designed to find the most intelligent and diligent con- tenders among the huge Chinese gene pool.
For those who did not believe in China's potential 'other' civilization, Russell had this warning: The Chinese demand Western science.
But they do not de- mand the adoption of the Western philosophy of life. If they were to adopt the Western philosophy of life, they would, as soon as they had made themselves safe against foreign ag- gression, embark upon aggression on their own account.
Bertrand Russel, 1 Unfortunately, to this day, this is exactly what half-educated Western policy-makers encourage China to become.
Ignoring any information about China is not knowledge about China, with their often reckless demands for 'The American Dream', the 'Rechts- und Verfassungsstaat', 'Democracy', 'Human Rights', the Western nations of today are aiming at constructing a Middle Kingdom in their own image : "Hey, China, You look like one of us.
Look what we've made you! We come back to that in a minute. Why is that such an interesting new branch of scholar- ship?
That is why the 'History of Science in China' had to be carefully reconstructed in the West in order to make sense of it all.
The Jesuits in China, as I said elsewhere before, were mostly successful simply because they did not insist on implementing the whole of euro-centric catechism on the ordinary Chinaman; on the contrary they even adapted to Confucian scholarship.
In comparison to Mohammad's teachings in the Quran - which is after all a relatively young religious canon c.
He also branded China "un univers sans Dieu"; Johann Gottfried Herder labeled it: "an em- balmed mummy wound in silk" or "corner people", and, finally, Alain Peyrefitte , author of The Collision of two civilizations, famously called it: "V empire immobile" Bernie, , because of its compliance and, ultimately, meekness.
Same faithful Europeans who believed in God and the scien- tific ways, and - sensing a lack both of religion and science in China - assumed there had been no scientific advancement in China before the European arrival.
Not quite a fair observation, as we know today. It is true that before the introduction of West- ern sciences, there had been indeed no need for foreign axioms.
But that was simply because East- Asia had cultivated its own practical driven mathematics, primarily relying on induction and analogical reasoning.
Arthur Smith in his The Chinese Characteris- tics , that "the Chinese mind absolutely must be algebraic, while the Western mind is arithmetical" Smith, Chinese Characteristics, mainly because of its style, is probably the single most outrageous book on the peculiarities of the Chinaman ever written, causing rushes of anti-Western re- sentment among the Chinese leading up to the Boxer Rebellion against the Western imperialists in Yet, Smith sim- ple recounted what every scientist in the field already knew: There is the integration-based East, and there is the analysis- based West, and no third mode of reasoning other than that of the inductive and deductive modes has ever been achieved by human beings.
It seemed incredible, but here was Asia which excelled more in the inductive ways, while there was Europe which excelled more at the deductive ways.
And that was it. By this Zhu Shijie perfectly harmonizes Chinese mathematics with the Eastern concept of 'oneness', thus once more effectively summarizing the essence of most Eastern philosophy - be it the teachings of Siddhartha Buddha BC , Vyasa of the Mahabharata c.
Someone who is genuinely interested in mathematics may as well call the cited works above the 'Chinese Computation Clas- sics'.
Chinese mathematics, which had a great influence on mathematics in Korea and Japan as well, flourished until ap- proximately the 12th and 13th century, fell into decline after the arrival of the Jesuits and Western and their teachings about ar- ithmetical mathematics and analytic-based science, and became almost forgotten during the 1 9th and 20th century Jami et.
Why had the world waited years for Pas- cal's triangle when Zhu Shijie's diagram could have done the same trick? Thus, Chinese were able to deal with problems which in the West could not be tackled until a suitable mathematical symbolism had been developed.
At the same time, this meant that the Chinese mathematicians never had the incentive to develop a fully symbolic algebraic notation, since the need for one was never as acutely felt as in Europe.
Hoe, Language barriers, cultural prejudices, ignorance or pure spite? One is dread to think it's all of it, and a lot more than that, and that is hasn't changed much during the last years.
Don't expect any great proportions of American or British citizens, even the more educated ones, ever to learn the host's language or to know anything about the host other than the information they got from English textbooks.
It is not going to happen, it is wishful thinking. The results were impressive. Some years later, when Britain was forced to think scientifically about how to improve its agriculture in order to feed its "overpopulation" of some 5,7 million, China already nurtured a nation of roughly million.
By comparing geographical distances and spaces, the Chinese scholars em- ployed their own mechanical, scientific methods that relied on empirical proofs devised by their ancestors, rather than axio- matic proofs preferred by the ancient Greeks and devised by their ancestors Jami, Surprisingly, today traditional Chinese mathematics like me- chanical proofs or 'Wu Wenjun's method' experience a revival in Computational Sciences, just as Chinese medicine, Chinese education and Chinese politics do in the other respective fields; all these disciplines are now striving again for recognition in world science.
To sum up, only after the West, culturally and scientifically, "invaded" the Eastern hemisphere, did mathematics in China become the universally axiomatic-deductive driven vehicle it is today.
But Western invasion was not the precursor for sciences in China. Science had been in Asia before, if only in a different fashion and unique manner Needham, ; Jami, Fortunately, the Western fabricated fairy-tale of former East- ern 'backwardness' and Western 'glory' in this century now lies tattered and wrenched.
In some disciplines we prefer the inductive way - the arts; in many we tend to sway from side to side, like in sociology, archeology, psychology, philosophy - the humanities; in others we prefer the deductive way, like in mathematics, physics, biol- ogy, chemistry - the classical sciences, but ideally, induction and deduction should be used more balanced.
Maxwell's equations are a good example of a successful syn- thesis: he carefully applied first the deductive methods in proving several equations in seemingly separated fields of re- search, then the inductive method to demonstrate that electricity, magnetism, and even light are all manifestations of the same phenomenon: the electromagnetic field.
It is like seeing each tree, and then the whole forest, but never both quite at the same time. This lesson, unfortunately, describes an 'ideal' solution of prob- lem solving by picking up a single successful case out of a million yet undecided ones.
If that is what indeed happened, it would constitute a discovery of great consequences; it would mean that Western superior history has been ideologically and methodically biased, if not inherently flawed, throughout the ages: The academic discipline of history is inevitably ideological in essence.
Regardless of what might be the case with indi- vidual historical events, historical narration is always the result of a series of selective choices, so that the influence of the historian's standpoint is inescapable.
Toshio Kuroda, Universal history, as explained all over this book, has at least two angles of view. As Needham , G. Loyd , J.
Spence all three were married to Chinese women, if you must know demonstrated to Western audiences, China's contributions to humankind in traditional mathematics, medicine, statecraft, and agriculture developed since quite remote times before the First Emperor Qin' s unification of China up to the Song 5j5 and Yuan Dynasty tc Wu, Unsurprisingly, the Chi- nese Communist Party, Chinese Ministry of Education, readily adopted Needham's thesis that so more often than not applauds, eulogizes and praises those good old days When Asia was the World Gordon, , a superstition that rarely makes sense today to anyone except some Western sinologist and orientalists.
In addition, and to the embarrassment of serious scholarship, the 'History of Sciences in China' became the hobbyhorse for tens of thousands of amateur scholars, exchange students, tour- ists and backpackers from around the world, taking up anything European or American and tracing it back to some Asian roots of origin.
Today, newspapers, computers, soccer, even German sauerkraut and sausages, Italian pasta and pizza, Reggae and Bob Marley have their firmly established Chinese progenitors the latter of whom there are Vincent and Patricia Chin of Randy's Records in Jamaica, if you insist on knowing.
Yet, whatever this new wave of 21st century 'Eastern enlightenment to the West', often mixed with institutionalized 79 THE EAST-WEST DICHOTOMY overstatement and euphemism in sensation- seeking media or some individuals' fancies may bring, even the most frivolous ambition to remedy the past failures of the Asian for the glory of her future cannot cover the fact, as Needham, Jami, Engelfriet, Lloyd, and Li described it, that China in particular had not de- veloped or not sufficiently developed anything in the way of science and technology that could compete with the - rather lucky than good - Western Imperialist's model, which in turn attested the Chinese being a people of 'arrested develop- ment' Gu, I said "rather lucky than good", because some scholars, by bending history to the point of breaking, want us to believe that "evil" Western dominance in Asia can only be ex- plained by the lucky insensitive of scientific discoveries like rifles and cannons Chirot, surpassing the firecrackers made of China's gunpowder.
Others, like Jant Aby-Lughod for example, point to the 'moment of China's political weakness' during the fall of the Mongols in the 13th century and coined the phrase 'bad luck for Asia', which was "exploited by the Europeans who lacked any singularly innovative entrepre- neurial scientific, or otherwise worthwhile advantages, except perhaps an exceptionally nasty tendency to conduct their large- scale trade as piracy" Aby-Lughod, Its strong tradition of learning, memorization, with translation and integration of foreign thoughts reaching back to the early Buddhist monks during the Six Dynasties AD , there is a remarkable consistency that ultimately proves a point: It is important you should remember, that this nation of children, who live a life of the heart, [.
Gu Hongming, 1 I could go on, but rather propose this midway conclusion. It might strike some Europeans as outright offensive, but the truth is that they are not alone claiming the title of the fittest in ' sur- viving' history.
India's sense of unity, ethnic diversity and, yes, democratic roots too grew out of necessity because of its 'composite religious culture' some years ago.
The goal of international scholarship was nothing less spectacular than to categorize all the world's cul- tures, to evaluate them, to dissect them, to discover and reveal patterns, and to make predictions about when they peak, when the struggle, and when they inevitably fall Kennedy, ; CCTV, It shows that the goal of civiliza- tion is sedentary culture and luxury.
When civilization reaches that goal, it turns toward corruption and starts being senile, as happens in the natural life of living beings.
Ibn Khaldun, Treating cultures as living beings has been the scientific trend ever since Khaldun. This 20th century "Cultural Heat" Ji, that is reaping its social theories by the bushels is well documented, and it is impossible to discuss them all.
What all theories have in common, however, and what has not changed this 2 1 st century, as it has never been seriously challenged for the last two millenniums, is a universe of facts from philosophy, politics and now evolutionary biology, social and linguistic anthropology that seem to suggest that the history of civilization - and thus all human identity - is build on and 85 THE EAST-WEST DICHOTOMY around the fundamental differences and interaction among and between groups, populations and cultures, and that the one dif- ference and the one interaction that matter the most are those of the two great cultural systems: the West and its Other, Perhaps the most striking phenomenon in Cultural Studies today is the revival of Max Weber's 'ideal types of cultures' that do facilitate progress and those that do not.
Toynbee loved those cultural league tables, too. A new blame-game set in to find the latest 'sick-men-of-Europe', the next 'youth bulge' Goldstone, ; Fuller, ; Heinsohn, , 'another failed Arab state', a Teft behind', an 'axis's of evil', an 'empire in decline', the Chinese Century Shenkar, , the New Asian Hemi- sphere Mahbubani, , the 'yellow peril', or just another victim for the 'War on Terror'.
Sensationalist literature about it is abundant: In the West we read Samuel P. Huntington , , , Francis Fuku- yama , Jared Diamond , , Milton Friedman , , , and Juergen Habermas , , According to Weber , Western standards, insti- tutions of law, science, education and economics reflect Western analysis-based rationalism and this may explain why the West got rich and technologically advanced before the East did We- ber, That underlying promise proved to be believable.
Today, virtually every piece of scientific and economical history has been tried on the Eastern people to demonstrate the - seem- ingly irrefutable - fact that the West was and still is the single most important and the only leading creative force of humankind.
In fact, the only way for a person of Hindu, Arab or Chinese background to get some personal integrity in this world was to become westernized, study in Western universities, or work for a Western international cooperation.
The East it seemed was never in the position to ask for anything except for trouble. Unfortunately, Mr. In fact, arguably the world greatest orientalist - he had never been to the orient.
We could say then, that he was a Ger- man rationalist, in the time when Germany used to be a great power c. Weber of his affluence, to explain the mechanics of world history not by em- pirical investigation or observation, but - just like the other part- time sinophobic Germans Kant , Schlegel , Schelling and Herder before him - by miraculous, rational enquiry from within his closet.
For the same reason, if you had given Mr. Weber a fictional race, lets say the 'smurfs', undoubtedly he would have produced a very elegant argument, why the 'smurfs' never built a financial empire and got rich, as the protestants in Europe so splendidly did, based on the sole, simple and irrefutable fact that 'smurfs' are no protestants.
This, of course, is a tautology of epic propor- tions e. For that reason, Weber's theory in sociology, like Freud in psychology or Marx in eco- nomics, has come out of favor; this not necessary solely on grounds that his work is inherently non-scientific, but more so because his dialogue with other cultures is really a self-serving, tedious monologue.
Another, maybe more elegant, explanation of Western his- torical dominance over world affairs was given by the late Edward Said , founder of 'post-colonial theory' in his masterpiece Orientalism and - independently - by Linda Hutcheon in The Politics of Post-Modernism Post- colonial theory essentially says that Orientalism, the study of Eastern cultures, religions and languages, is the creation 'brain- child' is the term of fashion, I believe of Western scholars.
Western scholars had written Asia's history from a perspective of European-centred norms, just like the Greeks fashioned the Persians in their way, thereby only intensifying the exotic 'otherness' of the Eastern hemisphere.
Said and Hutcheon both argue, that first 'post-colonial' and then 'post-modernist' theo- ries both are Western concepts.
Second, that they are syntheses of bourgeois rationalism of the European Enlightenment as the- sis on the one hand, and modernism as the anti-thesis on the other.
As the two above mentioned authors would agree then, the East did not experience any of these categorizations, just as the West did not experience a Bol- sheviks Revolution , Communism , the Chinese Revolution , the Cultural Revolution , nor the Opening-up-era under Deng Xiaoping As a consequence, it seems persuasive to me that neither hemisphere necessarily has to experience the other hemisphere's history in order to proceed with its own.
There is a philosophical misconception in the writings of many Western scholars that seems to suggest that China or India will never catch up, be- cause they only recently reached an early industrial age and missed out the Western Enlightenment.
If human evolution were, like most Western scholars would have it, essentially a one-way causal process like climing a lad- der , why did the Romans or Greeks on their way to become a proper civilization never produced Confucius, Mencius, the Tang Dynasty, the Rgveda, the Brahmanas or the Mahabharatcf!
One branch could have developed into the Western hemisphere and holds the history of a more deduction-based manner, causality and rationality.
The other branch could have developed into to Eastern hemisphere and holds the history of a more induction- based manner, inter-connectedness and universality.
But it would still be 'one' history-tree, or maybe two different trees albeit not too far apart. So, what makes so many Western sensa- tionalists think that these trees or branches could possibly 'crash' - as in Crash of Civilizations Huntington, ?
Isn't it more reasonable to think that branches or sub-branches of history may die off, wither, break, become lost or forgotten rather than 'to clash'?
Surely, if the militant West wishes a clash of civiliza- tion , a clash it will be, albeit an uninspiring, unimaginative, and utterly useless one.
This so, because the Western hemisphere still does not wholly appreciate the grand alternative and worthy goal of engaging the East based on mutual respect and towards an "inclusive approach".
Edmund Husserl, The receptive, integration-based East has learned to appreci- ate the Western branch of knowledge for its very different views on many things.
Yet, in turn it has been exploited, colonized, and humiliated by the West: The crux of the whole question affecting the Powers of the Western nations in the Far East lies in the appreciation of the true inwardness of the Oriental mind.
Alexis Krausse, 1 Isn't it important - in any relationship -, that both sides learn from each other, respect each other?
If not, Goethe had this warning - for those who cared to listen Morgan, : The Philistine not only ignores all conditions of life which are not his own but he also demands that the rest of mankind should fashion its mode of existence after his own.
Johann W. Yet, if asked for an opinion on Chinese language and culture, his chest will swell and - without ever having made the slightest progress in learning but 10 Chi- nese characters - he will air his expert opinion that his own bitter experience of the impossibility of mastering those 65, Chinese ideographs begs the question whether the ultimate cause of China's backwardness in the sciences is her very 'chinese- ness' itself.
China, Japan, and India and their peripheries are all seen at the receiving end of history; they receive more and in- herently give less Krausse, ; Husserl, ; Pyle, Western nations seek a global civilization, which they be- lieve is an extension of their own; while the Eastern nations, still cherishing their traditional cultures, will feel the ' rage of the Western destabilizers', if they do not comply with Western ag- gression: 93 THE EAST-WEST DICHOTOMY "Chinese society bears a function of 'interior self- stability', while the European society possesses an 'interiorly-installed unstable factor'" Needham, Accordingly, Western nations act as if they 'own' the globe, history, and all material objects.
As soon as Asian nationals lay hands on any matters material or any theories about matters ma- terial, that very action is deemed a service to 'westernization, as if there was a Western patent on matter and modernity.
There are Western tourists in Singapore, Shanghai, Yokohama, who genu- inely believe that every house, bank, pair of high-heels, traffic lights, newspapers, computers, trains or automobiles are a genu- ine extension of Western civilization.
Young Anglo-saxon visitors are especially quick to remind the Asians that every English-language billboard marks Anglo- Saxon cultural territory.
We may forgive those clueless, young Asia-bashers. Buddhism has not made China an India, and capitalism has not made Japan an America.
To annihi- late 'cultural diversification', accumulated in thousands of years or more, might not be as easy after all, not even in an American corporate dream.
Isn't a 'common sensibility' preferable to all this American talk about global culture and values Zhao, ? As an example of East and West talking cross purpose, the memorable dialogue between Albert Einstein and Rabindranath Tagore on July 14, shows, quite nicely I think, Einstein's limits to fully appreciate what Tagore wants to communicate, namely that the Western notion of causality has its limits.
Mendel today the new mathematical discoveries which tell us that in the realm of infinitesimal atoms chance has its play; the drama of exis- tence is not absolutely predestined in character.
Einstein a priori rules out - as it seems fit for any proper scientist - any alternative to Western-style causality. It also seems out of the question for Einstein and the culture he represents to think that there is any concept - letting alone that of an 'ancient Oriental wizard' Kawabata, - other than a sci- entific, rational Western one.
Kipling's "East is East, and West is West, and never the two shall meet" comes to mind Kipling, Surely, there must be more wisdom than Western science in this world: Perhaps in return for conquest, arrogance and spoliation, In- dia will teach us the tolerance and gentleness of the mature mind, the quiet content of the unacquisitive soul, the calm of the understanding spirit, and a unifying, a pacifying love for all living things.
Will Durant, Land of religions, cradle of human race, birthplace of human speech, grandmother of legend, great grandmother of tradi- tion.
The land that all men desire to see and having seen once even by a glimpse, would not give that glimpse for the shows of the rest of the globe combined.
Mark Twain, In my understanding, the two global hemispheres experi- enced a different history, and this made them who they are today.
What did the existentialists teach us about identity? Isn't it the case that the beginning of human history determined what we are, but our historical experience determines who we are?
However, thousands of years of unique history made us who we are: Chinese, Indians, Japanese, Ger- mans, French, British etc.
I will not ditch on each and every leave or twig and say that any particular culture should be preserved, nor will I give myself into the illusion that everything can be preserved.
Having said this, however, the smallest leaves and twigs will bend and break when the weather becomes harsh, and wither when the tree is not well nurtured.
If our criteria were Tonglivity', however, we would be safest to bet on the two great branches of world his- tory: the East and the West.
To conclude, the argument that East and West look at the same history albeit from different angles is to be refuted: History is not localized, nor is it something hung out to be looked at.
While in the integration-based societies knowledge came from studying the classics, the wise, the kings of old, the analy- sis-based West started to categorize and deconstruct nature and all things.
Periodism, for example, is characteristically related to Western rationalism, as opposed to non-event related dynasties named after Chinese emperors for example, so is categorization as a method to acquire new knowledge ad infinitum.
Michel Foucault, The concept of power in the integration-based East however is sheer might in numbers, uniformity and thus consistency. This spiritual 'moral power' drove out the Imperialists in the first half of the 20th century: The truest test of civilization, culture and dignity is character, not clothing.
Mahatma Gandhi To sum up, Western power in my taxonomy is related to ana- lytically-based deductive knowledge whereas Eastern power is related to integration-based inductive knowledge.
The former has the historical function of a dangerous, yet creative force; the latter has the historical function of a tranquil, yet moral force.
If you cannot read what I just wrote that means you probably don't understand Chi- nese. Without knowing Chinese, it is, I would argue, very difficult to read, listen and understand Chinese people.
Similar in philosophy we have the - verifiably - higly gifted Gottfried Leibniz , Friedrich W. Schelling , Georg Wilhelm F. Now, of all the persons listed above, to my knowledge none of them had ever mastered Classical Chinese or Sanskrit, nor learned any other Asiatic language in a lifetime.
But then, why should they? The standard of Western knowl- edge is Western civilization and, recently, the English language, and against THAT standard all other cultures are measured and judged upon.
Edmund Husserl, It is clear to all Chinese that Western culture is the root of wealth, success, development and political survival - it is the essence of modernity.
Francesco Sisci, This air of condescension is reflected in Western education systems. Outside Asia the situation is truly hopeless, with the average American Joe or European Karl not being able to name a single living Chinese person.
The histories of China, Japan, and India were not even men- tioned before in the syllabus of Germany's compulsory secondary school curriculum.
Are Europeans really that ignorant? Of course, they are not. Far from it, in fact, they are really busy in all intellectual de- partments in keeping what they have, and maybe learning a bit more about finance, IT, American pop culture, and the other twenty-five EU member states.
What they don't have is spare time and human resources to master Eastern cultures and lan- guages.
Only so much time and energy can be devoted to the pursuit of knowledge of other cultures without other aspects of our own culture suffering.
It is therefore self-evident, which countries have greater capacity for cultural preservation. Of all the cultures that have disappeared from this world, to my knowledge, not a single farewell letter or suicide note has ever been unearthed.
It must be a pain-less, gradual, almost un- noticed just process. Some of the Goths, the East Germanic tribes who disappeared slowly after the 6th century, must have felt that their cities had too many foreigners; that their daughters preferred to marry outsiders, that there sons had to learn a for- eign language, that they consumed more and more goods that they themselves did not produce; that its few survivors suddenly felt the desire to belong to something greater than their own nar- row turf.
In drawing an analogy to Ms. Kubler-Ross's celebrated 'five stages of grief Ktibler-Ross, - denial, anger, bargaining, depression, ac- ceptance - certain European nations could be considered no longer in 'denial' but are already experiencing the next stage of their looming exodus, that of 'anger'.
Contrary to the Confucian laws of good manner or Indian tolerance and gentleness, Western media, especially the German, French and British ones - in the name of the European rest- monopoly on freedom, democracy and human-rights, - leave out no opportunity to shamelessly lecture China on human rights, degrade Islam, satirize India, wet-nurses the Persians Iran , and make a mockery of all ambitions Russian - whatever floats the European boat.
This helplessness of a dying creed pointing fingers - 1 have not seen in India, China or the U. On the contrary, these great and promising powers are optimistic and ambitious about their future.
This is especially true in Olympic China, that has the world's attention: "Jiifi5? Jltfe, Higher, faster, stronger, the Olympic Motto ".
An American teacher in Beijing once wrote in her web- diary about Chinese students: "The think their country is doing so incredibly well and it can only get better.
They also have plenty and great problems, they know it, but they would - as all great powers do - rather con- tinue to be great and engage with other great nations, and not to waste too much time with the negative, nagging and left-behind former great nations, and certainly not with some j ealously bark- ing - but politically irrelevant - European demagogues.
A great piece of advice will be needed to steer the European boat through these difficult times. I have one: "Not to live in living is to endure.
Not to die in dying is to live on" Kumarajiva, What then is the problem with Europe? Why don't they unify, become 'one'? I will argue, that in years of its his- tory, there has never been the concept of 'oneness', and 'harmoniousness' in the European collective mind.
Goethe said: "There are two peaceful powers in this world: Right and Tact" Goethe, The Religion in the civilization of the Hebrew people taught the people in Europe the knowledge of Right, but it did not teach Tact Gu, The Greeks knew about Tact and taught the Romans.
Thus, the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire , from the King of the Franks Charlemagne to Francis II , later Emperor of Austria, did not know how to rule tact- fully, and their subjects did not know how to submit tactfully.
Then, observe at all those divided terri- tories, quarreling tribes and countless families that "live scattered and apart, surrounding their dwellings with open space" Tacitus, , the Franken, the Dutch, the Swiss, to- day's Czech, Flemish, Polish with no lingua franca, the opposition of Prussia and Austria, the Church.
And what did the righteous Napoleon do? He did what he knew was Right, he ran them all over again, thereby diffused and divided the already fragmented; but Napoleon did not know how to unite, rule or teach them Tact either.
The Chinese, on the other hand, knew only little about Right, but a lot more about Tact. Laozi said: When a large country submits to a small country, it will adopt the small country.
When a small country submits to a large country, it will be adopted by the large country. The one submits and adopts, the other submits and is adopted.
If both would serve their interests, both must submit. Laozi, Thus, there is a tactful bond between the small states imitat- ing the large: Submission is a means of union.
If you ask any of the fragmented twenty-seven nation states of Europe today about their European Union, each of them wants to defend their indi- vidual Right, but none of them has Tact enough to submit to the greater cause.
The "fragmentary view" on the world has the greatest prominence in the deductive West, namely in the categorization of the people of the world and their regions, followed by a rigor- ous system of classification Sen, The one-party political systems of Russia, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Iran, and China are outrageous human conditions, if not utterly revolting to the analytical Western intellect, and a security risk to Western hegemony Barnett, This revulsion is so pervasive and continuous in manner that I do not dare to speak out the irreversible and dangerous course of history that is looming over Asian civilization in case Europe and America cannot find itself at peace with the new, Asia- centric world-order.
Guy Mollet, That statement is based on facts. Far into the 's, no communist party in Western Europe or the United States held any considerable mandates.
Apart from France, Italy, and Finland, communism was virtually absent in Western politics, except, of course, as the bogeyman.
They will probably always be. What I will discuss, on the other hand, is how history is now repeating itself.
The 'sell off or labeling that took place in Western Europe with regard to communism as an ugly Eastern proposition, that same 'sell off or labeling is now taking place in Western Europe and the United States with regard to 'harmoniousness' as an ugly Eastern proposition.
Someone might want to go as far as to say: "The 'harmonizers' are not of the liberal-democrats but of the East".
This is what Amartya Kumar Sen, the Nobel Laureate in Economics, has to say about the two civilization modes and their views: There are two ways of thinking of the history of civilization in the world.
One is to pursue the story in an inclusive form, paying attention to the divisions as well as the interdepend- ence involved, possibly varying over time, between the manifestations of civilization in different parts of the world.
This I shall call the 'inclusive approach'. Amartya Kumar Sen, The two ways of thinking in the history of civilizations are reflected in humankind's approach towards 'communism' and now towards 'harmoniousness'.
The East is pursuing the story in an inclusive form; the West segregates the beliefs of different regions separately.
The West does not identify itself with the "inclusive approach" and right now is ejecting the 'harmonizers', like the 'communists' before them, out of the Western ideologi- cal hemisphere.
Indeed, after all the recent pre-emptive strikes on terrorists and failed states, the irreversible process of 'westernization' and 'globalization', the tiresome break with each and every civic code of mutual respect and non-interference in any nation's in- ternal affairs, and the desire to conquer nature and, if necessary, the traditional people and tribes that made a pact with nature - how can we not say that the deductive West is rejecting thor- oughly, entirely the inductive Eastern notion of ' harmoniousness '?
Yet, like with all abstracts that seem simple - they are actually very complex: If we study the histo- ries of the inductive East and the deductive West, and if we understand that the one went down the integration-based path while the other the analytical-based path, we will come to under- stand that 'harmoniousness', just like any other mental concept like 'democracy', must be understood in the "respective Western context" or in the "respective Eastern context".
The abstract concepts of 'harmoniousness' or 'democracy' behave non-relative precisely in their "respective Western con- text" and in their "respective Eastern context", and behave relative only in itself.
Here I will give an example about the so- called 'Golden Rule' in ethics, also called the 'ethic of reciproc- ity', which is supposedly at the root of the Western position on human rights.
In Luke 6; 1 Jesus said: "Do for others just what you want them to do for you. If you really do that, you may just find that your enemy will become your friend.
After all, who wants to be accused, beaten, and crucified? Despite all the individualist, very moving, and almost selfish touch of the bibli- cal Golden Rule, it is among the closest example of 'harmoniousness' in "the respective Western" context, and ac- cording to its moral implications, all Western nations have encouraged their societies to promote the development of indi- viduality by laws and variable decrees of punishment that will ensure your systematical punishment if another individual was harmed by you or your actions.
This could be called the Western 'fragmentary approach' to the Golden Rule. Now we will look at the Eastern 'inclusive approach' to the Golden Rule.
In the state there will be no complaints, in the fam- ily there will be no complaints Confucius, Lun Yu, 12;2. Few people in China fear the punishment by law for one's misbehavior.
What is feared most is the 'loss of face', the 'feed- back from the collective', the 'wrath of one's family', one's 'father's judgment', and, yes, sometimes the Party official's pa- tronizing, if not infantilizing, words "This disgraceful 'child' now prefers to feel ashamed".
If they are governed by the virtue and rules of propriety [rit- ual] are used to maintain order, they will have a sense of shame and will become good as well.
Confucius, Lun Yu 2;3 Next, let us assume that neither Jesus Christ nor Confucius is the voice of God, but the proposition they wanted to talk across really was intended to be universal.
What difference would it make? We would still have to read The Bible or The Analects to make sense of the real world.
The human mind needs context. That is the bottom line. In the Western context, 'harmonious- ness' is more Christianity-inflected while in the East context, 'harmoniousness' is more Confucian-inflected.
This is an exam- ple of what I meant by understanding 'harmoniousness' in the "respective Western context" and in the "respective Eastern con- text".
In the same way, other concepts should be understood "in the European" or "in the Asian context" before someone rushes into any international actions or conclusion, be it on human rights, political reform, economic theories, or euthanasia.
As I said before, communist theory, although to a large extent Western co-manufactured by Marx and Lenin, was almost fun- damentally 'ejected' from the Western hemisphere thereafter, giving the East considerable amount of time and freedom to ex- periment and develop its theories further.
After communism was 'ejected', and after the demise of the U. The West, despite all its patronization and sympathy for Asia, is fundamentally rejecting the Asian "inclusive approach" right from under our very eyes.
The more of Asia is insisting on the universal of 'oneness', 'balance', 'harmony', or 'integration': e. The West will not waste its ener- gies on anything that is inner-world dependent and all-inclusive; only that what the West discovered upon breaking that 'all- inclusive something' into its parts will make sense to him.
This is the consequence of the deductive Western "fragmentary ap- proach" towards nature and all things. They always have.
After the 'ejection' of communism from the Western hemisphere, in the case of dialectical materialism, all major par- ties of Western capitalistic democracies quickly found their own ways to attend to and satisfy its people and to curb production and the accumulation of material wealth, and it all happened without turning human beings into submissive production units with no human rights.
Today, Germany and France are arguably more socialist than socialist China ever will be. In the case of universal 'harmoniousness', the major parties in deductive Western democracies already have found their own ways to attend to the people's need for ever more ' international flights', 'foreign currencies', 'world trade', 'exchange', 'coop- eration', and 'tolerance', all well covered and served in Western terminology such as 'globalism', 'multiculturalism', 'cultural diversity', 'democracy', 'human rights' etc.
Again, this is the bottom line. There is no need for China's outmoded senses of tolerance, kindness, gracefulness, Japan's 'universal emptiness', Indian ancient senses of 'universal equality', 'universal toler- ance' or indeed any other spiritual idealism, no matter how many hundreds of years those great Eastern sages spoke prior to Jesus Christ, Bill Gates, or Harry Potter.
Billions of Asian hearts will have puffed with pride on hear- ing that their countries were joining the United Nations UN , the World Trade Organization WTO, another international conference, all in the name of 'globalism' that so much resem- bles the pursue of 'interconnectness', 'oneness', 'balance' or 'harmoniousness' and the Eastern need for 'self-cultivation' that has been at the root of all traditional Eastern societies from the beginning of time.
The answer is, no one can; and the West will not appreciate Eastern spirituality and its ways. Was it not Thomas S. Kuhn, the great American scientist, who said that "rival paradigms are inc- ommensurable" Kuhn, ?
Incommensurability means that although it is always possible to imitate each other, albeit it is almost impossible to understand a Chinese paradigm through let us say the conceptual framework and terminology of the Euro- pean looking-glass, and vice versa.
Luckily - or rather unluckily, depending one's point of view - there are appearances. Appearances can make happy, indeed. What appears to the integration-based Eastern nations as a con- tinuation of their own traditional search for 'oneness' and 'harmoniousness', that same process appears to the Europeans and Americans as the ingenious, creative deconstruction of the East, the processes of total 'westernization'.
Regardless of the looming dangers if things do not work out as expected. The psychological conundrum for Asia is that due to its in- duction-based views on the world, it does not perceive those European countries as isolated and self-sufficient, but rather as integrated and dependent part of humankind, and thus - out of need for universal tolerance and harmony - readily believes them; at least will always consider Western views.
Apart from a few premises that it chose to work with at any specific time, the West usually does not consider other countries' noises and fusses.
It does not take into account all the facts, the history, the "respective East- ern context", the whole picture, but isolates each time a few propositions and draws its conclusions accordingly.
Its deductive method is precise and sharp as a surgeon's knife. When the German spokesman of German National TV, ZDF Zweite Deutsche Fernsehen came to Shanghai in and hold a talk on 'Journalism governed by public law', he embarrassed his host, the Tongji University of Shanghai and in my estimation a lot more audiences , by laying down some abstract German prem- ises about 'press-freedom' and 'human-rights' and than drawing his very German conclusion about what any rational man should consider is 'good journalism', following a top-to-down deductive- style hell of an argument, like a surgeon that came and undertook a liver-transplantation.
There is no option of using chopsticks for a liver-transplantation, you see. There can be no mistake about what a liver is. And about where it is.
All the pa- rameters are highly scientific and precise. We know what a good operation looks like, and we know what follows if all the prem- ises are true: the patient walks out of the hospital.
When a Chinese professor in broken German language informed the au- rHE PROBLEM OF STANDARD diences firstly that reality is more complex and complicated, that the Chinese position has to be taken into account, and secondly that in particular German media-coverage on the Tibet-incidents was biased, often untrue, and that is even used Nazi-terminology such as ' Jubelchinesen' Chinese volunteers who simulate spon- taneous joy and cheerfulness for media-coverage on the Bejing Olympic Games torch-relay, the German lecturer replied in disbelief: "Nun seien Sie mal nicht so weinerlich!
Kuhn , Karl Pop- per , the venerable Scottish essayist Thomas Carlyle , and the great historian Joseph Needham all concluded that the evolution of science is non- relativistic, which tells us that the deduction-based West was more or less predestined to pick up the scientific way.
No matter what those few smart Eastern individuals invented - in China 'few' meant a lot -, be it the compass in 1 BC - really a mechanical one, the so called 'South-pointing carriage' of the Duke of Zhou of the Zhou Dynasty c.