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Catholicism has been the predominant religion in France for more than a millennium, though it is not as actively practised today as it was.
In some cases clergy and churches were attacked, with iconoclasm stripping the churches of statues and ornaments. To this day, the government is prohibited from recognizing any specific right to a religious community except for legacy statutes like those of military chaplains and the local law in Alsace-Moselle.
It recognizes religious organisations according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine.
Conversely, religious organisations are expected to refrain from intervening in policy-making. The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance.
In its assessment of world health care systems, the World Health Organization found that France provided the "close to best overall health care" in the world.
Average life expectancy at birth is 78 years for men and 85 years for women, one of the highest of the European Union and the World.
Even if the French have the reputation of being one of the thinnest people in developed countries,      France—like other rich countries—faces an increasing and recent epidemic of obesity , due mostly to the replacement in French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine by junk food.
French education is centralized and divided into three stages: Primary, secondary, and higher education. While training and remuneration of teachers and the curriculum are the responsibility of the state centrally, the management of primary and secondary schools is overseen by local authorities.
Nursery school aims to stimulate the minds of very young children and promote their socialization and development of a basic grasp of language and number.
Around the age of six, children transfer to elementary school, whose primary objectives are learning about writing, arithmetic and citizenship.
Secondary education also consists of two phases. France has been a center of Western cultural development for centuries.
Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time, and France is still recognized in the world for its rich cultural tradition.
The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public.
The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting French culture in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, protecting historical monuments.
The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country.
France receives the highest number of tourists per year, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory.
The 43, buildings protected as historical monuments include mainly residences many castles and religious buildings cathedrals , basilicas , churches , but also statues, memorials and gardens.
The origins of French art were very much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance.
Jean Fouquet , the most famous medieval French painter, is said to have been the first to travel to Italy and experience the Early Renaissance at first hand.
The Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as Primaticcio and Rosso Fiorentino , who both worked in France.
The 17th century was the period when French painting became prominent and individualised itself through classicism. In the second part of the 19th century, France's influence over painting became even more important, with the development of new styles of painting such as Impressionism and Symbolism.
Many museums in France are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works. During the Middle Ages, many fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers.
During this era, France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe. Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulouse , the largest romanesque church in Europe,  and the remains of the Cluniac Abbey.
The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Notre-Dame de Reims. The final victory in the Hundred Years' War marked an important stage in the evolution of French architecture.
Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque architecture replaced the traditional Gothic style. However, in France, baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in a religious one.
Jules Hardouin Mansart , who designed the extensions to Versailles, was one of the most influential French architect of the baroque era; he is famous for his dome at Les Invalides.
On the military architectural side, Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses in Europe and became an influential military architect; as a result, imitations of his works can be found all over Europe, the Americas, Russia and Turkey.
After the Revolution, the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although it was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such buildings as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse.
Under Napoleon III , a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth; extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built.
The urban planning of the time was very organised and rigorous; for example, Haussmann's renovation of Paris.
The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire.
In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges, such as Garabit viaduct , and remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower.
More recently, French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. The Louvre Pyramid is an example of modern architecture added to an older building.
The most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar. For instance, in Paris, since , new buildings had to be under 37 meters feet.
The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ages , when what is now known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language.
There were several languages and dialects, and writers used their own spelling and grammar. Much medieval French poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of France , such as The Song of Roland and the various chansons de geste.
The Roman de Renart , written in by Perrout de Saint Cloude, tells the story of the medieval character Reynard 'the Fox' and is another example of early French writing.
Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century. His most famous work, Essais , created the literary genre of the essay.
Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people.
French literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries. During that same century, Charles Perrault was a prolific writer of famous children's fairy tales including Puss in Boots , Cinderella , Sleeping Beauty and Bluebeard.
The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors. Victor Hugo is sometimes seen as "the greatest French writer of all times"  for excelling in all literary genres.
The preface of his play Cromwell is considered to be the manifesto of the Romantic movement.
The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance.
Descartes revitalised Western philosophy , which had been declined after the Greek and Roman eras. French philosophers produced some of the most important political works of the Age of Enlightenment.
In The Spirit of the Laws , Baron de Montesquieu theorised the principle of separation of powers , which has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in the United States.
Voltaire came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free trial and freedom of religion.
In the 20th century, partly as a reaction to the perceived excesses of positivism, French spiritualism thrived with thinkers such as Henri Bergson and it influenced American pragmatism and Whitehead 's version of process philosophy.
France has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed a number of talented musicians and composers in the royal court.
After the death of the "Roi Soleil", French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned French composers.
Rameau became the dominant composer of French opera and the leading French composer for the harpsichord. French composers played an important role during the music of the 19th and early 20th century, which is considered to be the Romantic music era.
Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity.
This period was also a golden age for operas. Later came precursors of modern classical music. Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music.
Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed.
The two composers invented new musical forms     and new sounds. Ravel's piano compositions, such as Jeux d'eau , Miroirs , Le tombeau de Couperin and Gaspard de la nuit , demand considerable virtuosity.
More recently, the middle of the 20th century, Maurice Ohana , Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Boulez contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music.
French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century.
In the s and s decade , electronic duos Daft Punk , Justice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.
Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas.
It is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the Government of France. France remains a leader in filmmaking, as of [update] producing more films than any other European country.
Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world.
For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world,  although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States.
Subsequently, France takes steps in protecting and promoting its culture, becoming a leading advocate of the cultural exception.
Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century, and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the s.
Today, Paris, along with London, Milan, and New York City, is considered one of the world's fashion capitals, and the city is home or headquarters to many of the premier fashion houses.
The expression Haute couture is, in France, a legally protected name, guaranteeing certain quality standards. The association of France with fashion and style French: la mode dates largely to the reign of Louis XIV  when the luxury goods industries in France came increasingly under royal control and the French royal court became, arguably, the arbiter of taste and style in Europe.
But France renewed its dominance of the high fashion French: couture or haute couture industry in the years — through the establishing of the great couturier houses such as Chanel , Dior , and Givenchy.
The French perfume industry is world leader in its sector and is centered on the town of Grasse. In the s, the elitist "Haute couture" came under criticism from France's youth culture.
The s saw a conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants and multinationals such as LVMH.
The most influential news magazines are the left-wing Le Nouvel Observateur , centrist L'Express and right-wing Le Point more than Like in most industrialized nations, the print media have been affected by a severe crisis in the past decade.
In , the government launched a major initiative to help the sector reform and become financially independent,   but in it had to give , euros to help the print media cope with the economic crisis , in addition to existing subsidies.
In , after years of centralised monopoly on radio and television, the governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions, but the three already-existing TV channels and four national radio stations   remained under state-control.
It was only in that the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory, ending state monopoly on radio. Public broadcasting group Radio France run five national radio stations.
In , the government created global news channel France According to a poll in , the French were found to have the highest level of religious tolerance and to be the country where the highest proportion of the population defines its identity primarily in term of nationality and not religion.
The French Revolution continues to permeate the country's collective memory. In addition, Bastille Day , the national holiday, commemorates the storming of the Bastille on 14 July A common and traditional symbol of the French people is the Gallic rooster.
Its origins date back to Antiquity, since the Latin word Gallus meant both " rooster " and "inhabitant of Gaul". Then this figure gradually became the most widely shared representation of the French, used by French monarchs, then by the Revolution and under the successive republican regimes as representation of the national identity, used for some stamps and coins.
France is one of the world leaders of gender equality in the workplace: as of , it has France is also committed to protecting the environment: in , France was ranked 2nd in the Environmental Performance Index behind neighboring Switzerland , out of countries ranked by Yale University in that study.
French cuisine is renowned for being one of the finest in the world. France's most renowned products are wines ,  including Champagne, Bordeaux , Bourgogne , and Beaujolais as well as a large variety of different cheeses , such as Camembert , Roquefort and Brie.
There are more than different varieties. The plat principal could include a pot au feu or steak frites. French cuisine is also regarded as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of France.
By , the Michelin Guide had awarded stars to French restaurants, at that time more than any other country, although the guide also inspects more restaurants in France than in any other country by , Japan was awarded as many Michelin stars as France, despite having half the number of Michelin inspectors working there.
In addition to its wine tradition, France is also a major producer of beer and rum. France produces rum via distilleries located on islands such as Reunion Island in the southern Indian Ocean.
Since , France is famous for its 24 Hours of Le Mans sports car endurance race. French martial arts include Savate and Fencing.
France has a close association with the Modern Olympic Games; it was a French aristocrat, Baron Pierre de Coubertin , who suggested the Games' revival, at the end of the 19th century.
Both the national football team and the national rugby union team are nicknamed " Les Bleus " in reference to the team's shirt colour as well as the national French tricolour flag.
Football is the most popular sport in France, with over 1,, registered players, and over 18, registered clubs. The top national football club competition is Ligue 1.
It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments. Rugby union is popular, particularly in Paris and the southwest of France.
Stemming from a strong domestic league , the French rugby team has won 16 Six Nations Championships, including 8 grand slams ; and has reached the semi-final of the Rugby World Cup 6 times, going on to the final 3 times.
Rugby league in France is mostly played and followed in the South of France, in cities such as Perpignan and Toulouse.
The Elite One Championship is the professional competition for rugby league clubs in France. Judo is an important sport in France. It is the second country, after Japan, to have the most gold medals.
Teddy Riner has won ten World Championships gold medals, the first and only judoka to do so, and David Douillet has won four, making them respectively the first and third top judokas in the world in terms of gold medals.
In recent decades, France has produced world-elite basketball players, most notably Tony Parker. The national team has won two Olympic Silver Medals: in and From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses of "La France", see Lafrance. For other uses of "France", see France disambiguation. Country in Western Europe. Great Seal :.
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